Scientists unveil structure of adenovirus, the largest highresolution complex ever found. Jan 30, 2018 however, unlike the flu, adenovirus doesnt have a striking seasonality, adalja told live science. The penton base of human and animal adenovirus types is typically highly conserved with. Lifethreatening adenovirus infections are rare, and those with weak immune systems have the highest risk.
Adenovirus vector an overview sciencedirect topics. Vector illustration types of viruses vector illustration labeled drawings adenovirus vector illustration virus bacteriophage model. Liu h, jin l, koh sb, atanasov i, schein s, wu l, zhou zh. Structure, function and dynamics in adenovirus maturation. A detailed structural analysis of the entire human adenovirus capsid has been stymied by the complexity and size of this 150 mda macromolecular complex. B views of the outer surface top showing minor protein ixand, following rotationthe inner surface bottom of a facet showing minor proteins iiia, vi, and viii. Structure and nacetylglucosamine binding of the distal. Pdf on dec 18, 2018, yulia desheva and others published introductory chapter. Encounters with adenovirus, upsala journal of medical. With the advent of more sophisticated structural analysis techniques the disposition of most of the structural proteins have been defined to a reasonable level. The adenovirus particle consists of an icosahedral protein shell surrounding a protein core that contains the linear, doublestranded dna genome.
Molecular architecture of adenovirus dna polymerase and location of the protein primer. It adds a protein to the end and replicates so there is no shortening. The adenovirus penton, a noncovalent complex of the pentameric penton base and trimeric fiber proteins, comprises the vertices of the adenovirus capsid and contains all necessary components for viral attachment and internalization. For some adenovirus serotypes, the clinical spectrum of disease associated. Chromatin structure of adenovirus dna throughout infection. Mar 12, 2019 here, the authors provide insights into the early stages of adenovirus infection by determining the cryoem structure of the trimeric had type 3 fibre knob bound to its cellular receptor human. We describe interactions between the major capsid protein hexon and several accessory molecules that stabilize the capsid. Adenoviruses are common viruses that cause a range of illness. Biology of adenovirus and its use as a vector for gene therapy michael j. The putative head domain has little sequence identity to adenovirus fibres of known structure.
Vector illustration the structure of the cytomegalovirus. Early and late genes uses our rna pol uses cellular rna polymerase but doesnt use cellular dna pol. Adenovirus can spread through droplets when someone with an infection coughs or sneezes. Adenovirus definition is any of a family adenoviridae of doublestranded dna viruses originally identified in human adenoid tissue, causing infections of the respiratory system, conjunctiva, and gastrointestinal tract, and including some capable of inducing malignant tumors in experimental animals. Adenovirus icosahedral structure furnishes natures representation of the architects presentation of the most stable geometric sphere. Diagram showing structure of adenovirus illustration. Adenoviral vectors have been one of the most widely used viruses in gene delivery. Another amazing feature of adenovirus is the multifunctionality of many of its structural proteins. At each step, the capsid undergoes structural changes until capsid. Adenovirus infection symptoms, treatment, vaccine, transmission. Many of the proteins that form the icosahedral capsid of adenovirus play additional key roles during the viral life cycle. It does not have telomeres, so the integrity of the dna ends is ensured by the use of a viral protein, preterminal protein ptp. Viruses free fulltext the adenovirus genome contributes to the. This web page is a resource on the adenovirus family.
The infections usually cause only mild symptoms and get better on their own in a few days. The structures of reovirus, bluetongue virus, and prd1 were retrieved. Crystal structure of the receptorbinding domain of adenovirus type 5. Cell free systems developed to study ad dna replication have shown that the compacted nature of the viiwrapped viral dna allows for only limited transcription and dna replication 46, 47. Further, patients in the adenovirus infection group showed significantly high levels of creactive protein 4. Isolated vector adenovirus virus particle structure diagram showing structure of adenovirus molecular model of adenovirus. It has been suggested that there is a possible connection between adenovirus type 36 and obesity powledge et al. Aug 27, 2010 rational development of adenovirus vectors for therapeutic gene transfer is hampered by the lack of accurate structural information. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext.
Adenovirus is a very common infection, estimated to be responsible for between 2% and 5% of all respiratory infections. Biology of adenovirus and its use as a vector for gene therapy. Pdf serum creactive protein in children with adenovirus. Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor car is a protein that in humans is encoded by the cxadr gene.
Even though adenovirus replicates in the nucleus, it requires its own enzymatic machinery because of its chromosomal structure. A protein core inside the outer icosahedral protein capsid contains the genome. Genome structure is one of the characters used to assign viruses to groups 7095% homology within groups, 520% homology between groups. We describe interactions between the major capsid protein hexon and several accessory molecules that stabilize the. Adenovirus spreads via exposure to contaminated water or hard surfaces and inhalation of airborne droplets when an infected person sneezes or coughs. Adenoviruses have been studied intensively for over 50 years as models of viruscell interactions and latterly as gene vectors. Backgrounddiscovery the concept behind modern virology can be traced back to adolf mayer, dimitri ivanofsky and martinus beijerinck who, independently in the late 1880s, discovered what was later to be called tobacco mosaic virus tmv.
Over the past 10 years, the steady improvements in viral genome manipulation concomitant with advances in crystallographic techniques and data processing software has allowed structure determination of this virus by xray diffraction at 3. Nov, 2014 adenovirus structure,recombinant adenovirus construction etc. Infections are common in closecontact settings, such as childcare centers, schools, hospitals, and summer camps. Atomic structure of human adenovirus by cryoem reveals interactions among protein networks. One observation on adenovirus structure that is not in question is the incredible complexity of this virus. Car protein is expressed in several tissues, including heart, brain, and, more generally, epithelial and endothelial cells. Structural proteins of adenoviruses are designated by roman numerals in descending order of.
Structure, function, and evolution of adenovirusassociated rna. The page includes information on adenovirus structure and function, associated disease, transmission, diagnosis, clinical course, prevention and treatment. There was no structural information on assembly intermediates. Imperiale introduction a denoviruses were first discovered half a century ago by rowe and colleagues, who were trying to culture adenoid tissue in the laboratory rowe et al. Most kids will have at least one type of adenovirus infection by the time theyre 10.
Since that time, nonhuman adenoviruses have been isolated from a. The preterminal protein is covalently linked to the 5 end of each genome strand and acts as. Pdf adenovirus adv capsid organization is considerably complex, not only. This observation suggests that the coredna structure must be remodeled to allow these processes to proceed with greater efficiency. Pdf latest insights on adenovirus structure and assembly. This allows the virus to theoretically carry 22 to 40 genes. Linear dna and primersdna gets shorter every replication. Through analogy to other adenovirus fibre proteins, it is expected that the carboxyterminal virusdistal head domain of the fibre is responsible for binding to the host cell, although the natural receptor is unknown. Scientists unveil structure of adenovirus, the largest high. Adenovirus definition of adenovirus by merriamwebster. In winter, infection with type 4 or 7 causes recognisable illness in military recruits, with about 25% requiring hospitalisation for fever and lower respiratory tract disease berkow et al.
Atomic structure of human adenovirus by cryoem reveals. Infection with one of the many adenoviruses may be asymptomatic or result in specific syndromes, including mild respiratory infections, keratoconjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, cystitis, and primary pneumonia. We highlight new developments, which include the structure of the penton base and the discovery that adenovirus has several relatives. After the interaction with car, the adenovirus enters the cell via the clathrindependent, or macropinocytosis, pathway 29. Adenovirus infections merck manuals professional edition. Adenoviruses are mediumsized 90100 nm, nonenveloped naked icosahedral viruses composed of a nucleocapsid and a doublestranded linear dna genome. A detailed structural analysis of the entire human adenovirus capsid has been. The protein encoded by this gene is a type i membrane receptor for group b coxsackie viruses and subgroup c adenoviruses. Here, we report the structure of the whole human adenovirus virion at 3. Adenoviruses are nonenveloped icosahedral viruses measuring 6090nm in diameter and containing doublestranded dna. They are nonenveloped, doublestranded ds dna viral vectors with a packaging capacity of approximately 35 kb. Aug 27, 2010 construction of a complex virus may involve a hierarchy of assembly elements. In proteinprotein binding, the free energy of binding at the level of amino acid.
The adenovirus genome contributes to the structural stability of the virion. It has been proposed that free adenovirus fibers may facilitate virus spread by disrupting. Cryoem structure of adenovirus type 3 fibre with desmoglein 2. Adenovirus dna replication cold spring harb perspect biol. This article belongs to the special issue adenoviral vectors. Pdf in this paper i describe aspects of work on the human. One controversial question remains concerning the outer morphology of the adenovirus. Imaging the adenovirus infection cycle pied 2019 febs letters. Fecal material poop can spread the infection via contaminated water, dirty diapers, and poor hand washing. Diagram showing structure of adenovirus royalty free vector. There are over 51 different serotypes in humans, which are responsible for 510% of upper respiratory infections in children, and many infections in. In this article we will discuss about the structure of adenoviruses explained with diagram. Cys428, near the amino terminus are in their free thiol.
This knowledge now includes a good working model for the architectural organization of the virion, and atomic resolution molecular structures for all the major capsid proteins, hexon, penton, and fiber. Adenoviruses cause a wide range of illnesses, depending on the virus type. Adenovirus adv capsid organization is considerably complex, not only because of its large size 950 a and triangulation number pseudo t 25, but also because it contains four types of minor proteins in specialized locations modulating the quasiequivalent icosahedral interactions. Adenovirus is a large virus, composed of a complex protein capsid surrounding its dna genome and core proteins. The structure of the capsid has recently been solved by cryoelectron microscopy pdb entry 3iyn and xray crystallography pdb entry 1vsz. A radially colored surface of a reconstruction of the capsid, centered on a threefold axis. The hexon capsid and penton base structures are derived from a cryoelectron microscopic image. The shell, which is 70 to 100 nm in diameter, is made up of 252 structural capsomeres.962 175 560 1486 709 613 652 1385 1080 1425 1209 108 531 692 75 1338 33 408 112 915 1189 1178 252 552 699 1014 660 523 1128 924 132 1164 1473 235 23 371 738 182 250 1483 37 442 761 572 3 632 1140 1470 1337 528